While the use of the AutoSecure feature can greatly ease the process of protecting all the devices in the network, it is recommended that a network security policy be developed and that a regular audit process be implemented to ensure the compliance of all network devices. As a example, IPv6 services can be deployed via an interim ISATAP overlay that allows IPv6 devices to tunnel over portions of the campus that are not yet native IPv6 enabled. As alternative configuration to the traditional multi-tier distribution block model is one in which the access switch acts as a full Layer-3 routing node (provides both Layer-2 and Layer-3 switching) and the access to distribution Layer-2 uplink trunks are replaced with Layer-3 point-to-point routed links. Figure 1-14 Distribution Layer Interconnecting the Access Layer. Implementing a separate core for the campus network also provides one additional specific advantage as the network grows: A separate core provides the ability to scale the size of the campus network in a structured fashion that minimizes overall complexity. See the upcoming Virtual Switch Design Guide for final values. Without the ability to monitor and observe what is happening in the network, it can be extremely difficult to detect the presence of unauthorized devices or malicious traffic flows. Cisco campus designs also use layers to simplify the architectures. Layer 2 in the access layer is more prevalent in the data center because some applications support low-latency via Layer 2 domains. In a network with redundant switches, or switches in parallel, the network will only break if both of the redundant switches fail. Ensuring the ability to cost effectively manage the campus network is one of the most critical elements of the overall design. An increased desire for mobility, the drive for heightened security, and the need to accurately identify and segment users, devices and networks are all being driven by the changes in the way businesses partner and work with other organizations. It reduces design complications when there is no need to consider the possibility of traffic flowing around or through a policy layer twice. Until recently, it has been recommended that the end devices themselves not to be considered as trusted unless they were strictly managed by the IT operations group. As shown by the numerous security vulnerabilities exposed in software operating systems and programs in recent years, software designers are learning that to be correct is no longer enough. One version of spanning tree and the use of the spanning tree hardening features (such as Loopguard, Rootguard, and BPDUGuard) are configured on the access ports and switch-to-switch links as appropriate. What a campus does or needs to provide can be categorized into six groups: In the following sections, each of these services or service level requirements is introduced. Because there is no upper bound to the size of a large campus, the design might incorporate many scaling technologies throughout the enterprise. Most legacy wired networks had never been designed or deployed with network authentication in mind. As a result, each of these spanned VLANs has a spanning tree or Layer-2 looped topology. It introduces the key architectural components and services that are necessary to deploy a highly available, secure, and service-rich campus network. If the switch is unable to process routing, spanning tree, or any other control packets, the network is vulnerable and its availability is potentially compromised. Similarly, a failure in one part of the campus quite often affected the entire campus network. The combination of all three elements (physical redundancy to address Layer-1 physical failures, supervisor redundancy to provide for a non-stop forwarding (data) plane, and the hardening of the control plane through the combination of good design and hardware CPU protection capabilities) are the key elements in ensuring the availability of the switches themselves and optimal uptime for the campus as a whole. Enterprise Campus The enterprise campus is the portion of the infrastruc ture that provides network access to end users and devices located at the same geographical location. While each of these layers has specific service and feature requirements, it is the network topology control plane design choices—such as routing and spanning tree protocols—that are central to determining how the distribution block glues together and fits within the overall architecture. How long will someone listen to the phone if they do not hear anything? I want to design campus SDN switching and also complete SDN network in campus or enterprise. The access-distribution block (also referred to as the distribution block) is probably the most familiar element of the campus architecture. This leverages the NSF/SSO capabilities of the switch and provides for less than 200 msec of traffic loss during a full Cisco IOS upgrade. In most enterprise business environments, campus networks are no longer new additions to the network. What functionality must be designed into each of the hierarchical layers? Cisco Enterprise Network Architecture This section explains the various modules in the network design and describes the Cisco enterprise architecture model . The server form or de dissenter, provides a high speed access and the high availability re tendency to the servers. •Next generation applications are driving higher capacity requirements. Figure 1-17 Core Layer as Interconnect for Other Modules of Enterprise Network. As the figure shows, the primary Cisco Enterprise Architecture modules include: Enterprise Campus ; Enterprise Edge ; Service Provider Edge ; Remote; Enterprise Campus . •Implement a defense-in-depth approach to failure detection and recovery mechanisms. An example of this approach is illustrated in Figure 31. Evolutionary changes are occurring within the campus architecture. The next section discusses one such example. Cisco Enterprise Architecture Model (18.104.22.168) To accommodate the need for modularity in network design, Cisco developed the Cisco Enterprise Architecture model. Changes in the design or capacity of the distribution layer can be implemented in a phased or incremental manner. Tools, such as the Cisco MARS, should be leveraged to provide a consolidated view of gathered data to allow for a more accurate overall view of any security outbreaks. A third distribution module to support the third building would require eight additional links to support connections to all the distribution switches, or a total of 12 links. 3 With a virtual switch design, it is possible to configure a routed access layer, but this will affect the ability to span VLANs across wiring closets. Availability is traditionally measured using a number of metrics, including the percentage of time the network is available or the number of nines—such as five nines—of availability. In order to achieve this level of access mobility, the campus network must ensure that the following access services are integrated into the overall campus architecture: •Ability to physically attach to the network and be associated with or negotiate the correct Layer-1 and Layer-2 network services—PoE, link speed and duplex, subnet (VLAN or SSID), •Ability to provide device identification and, where needed, perform network access authentication, •Ability for the network to apply the desired QoS policies for the specific user, device or traffic flow (such as RTP streams), •Ability for the network to apply the desired security policies for the specific user or device, •Ability for the network and device to determine and then register the location of the attaching device, •Ability for the device to negotiate and register the correct end station parameters (such as DHCP), as well as register for any other necessary network services (such as register for Unified Communications presence and call agent services). The Cisco Enterprise Architecture divides the network into functional components while still maintaining the core, distribution, and access layers. Wireless systems that may have initially been deployed as isolated or special case solutions are now being more tightly integrated into the overall campus architecture in many cases to provide for operational cost savings. The result of this basic difference is that while wireless access provides for a highly flexible environment allowing seamless roaming throughout the campus it suffers the risk that the network service will degrade under extreme conditions and will not always be able to guarantee network service level requirements. Network Virtualization is best described as the ability to leverage a single physical infrastructure and provide multiple virtual networks each with a distinct set of access policies and yet support all of the security, QoS, Unified Communication services available in a dedicated physical network. The trust boundary is the point in the network where all traffic beyond that point has been correctly identified and marked with the correct Class of Service (CoS)/Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) markings. Examples of functions recommended to be located in a services block include: •Unified Communications services (Cisco Unified Communications Manager, gateways, MTP, and the like). When a specific module no longer has sufficient capacity or is missing a new function or service, it can be updated or replaced by another module that has the same structural role in the overall hierarchical design. The campus network architecture is evolving in response to a combination of new business requirements, technology changes, and a growing set of end user expectations. One of the advantages of the hierarchical design is that we can achieve a degree of specialization in each of the layers, but this specialization assumes certain network behavior. Proper network architecture helps ensure that business strategies and IT investments are aligned. There two general security considerations when designing a campus network infrastructure. The other alternative—the V or loop-free design—follows the current best practice guidance for the multi-tier design and defines unique VLANs for each access switch. Router interface configuration, access lists, ip helper and any other configurations for each VLAN remain identical. The use of a switched VLAN-based design has provided for a number of advantages, increased capacity, isolation and manageability. In the largest enterprises, there might be multiple campus sites distributed worldwide with each providing both end user access and local backbone connectivity. Figure 1 The Layers of the Campus Hierarchy. However, most of the topics present in this text overlap with topics applicable to data center design, such as the use of VLANs. •How fast must the network converge to avoid call signalling failures, loss of dial tone, reset triggered by loss of connection to the call agent (such as Cisco Unified Communications Manager, Cisco Unified SRST, or Cisco Unified Communications Manager Express)? This document presents an overview of the campus network architecture and includes descriptions of various design considerations, topologies, technologies, configuration design guidelines, and other considerations relevant to the design of highly available, full-service campus switching fabric. The enterprise campus is usually understood as that portion of the computing infrastructure that provides access to network communication services and resources to end users and devices spread over a single geographic location. Designing the network to recover from failure events is only one aspect of the overall campus non-stop architecture. Later chapters discuss many of the features that might be optionally for smaller campuses that become requirements for larger networks. The use of diverse fiber paths with redundant links and line cards combined with fully redundant power supplies and power circuits, are the most critical aspects of device resiliency. Ensuring that the overall architecture provides for the optimal degree of flexibility possible will ensure that future business and technology requirements will be easier and more cost effective to implement. Determining whether or not QoS mechanisms—and the traffic prioritization and protection they provide—are needed within the campus has often been an issue of debate for network planers. While the principles of structured design and the use of modularity and hierarchy are integral to the design of campus networks they are not sufficient to create a sustainable and scalable network infrastructure. The security architecture for the campus can be broken down into three basic parts: infrastructure; perimeter and endpoint security; and protection. All rights reserved. Over time, a common authentication system for both wired and wireless—and most importantly devices moving between wired and wireless access domains—will become the common deployment model. In Figure 1-16, the distribution module in the second building of two interconnected switches requires four additional links for full-mesh connectivity to the first module. Figure 1-18 shows a sample medium campus network topology. •User Group Flexibility—The ability to virtualize the network forwarding capabilities and services within the campus fabric to support changes in administrative structure of the enterprise. A default gateway protocol—such as HSRP or GLBP—is run on the distribution layer switches along with a routing protocol to provide upstream routing to the core of the campus. QoS marking, policing, queuing, deep packet inspection NBAR, etc. It records operating temperatures, hardware uptime, interrupts, and other important events and messages that can assist with diagnosing problems with hardware cards (or modules) installed in a Cisco router or switch. While care is taken to ensure none of these events occur, having the capability to run extensive diagnostics to detect any failed components prior to any production cutover can avoid potential production problems from occurring later. As a recommended practice, deploy a dedicated campus core layer to connect three or more physical segments, such as building in the enterprise campus or four or more pairs of building distribution switches in a large campus. Design a LAN network based on customer requirements. There are currently three basic design choices for configuring the access-distribution block and the associated control plane: While all three of these designs use the same basic physical topology and cabling plant there are differences in where the Layer-2 and Layer-3 boundaries exist, how the network topology redundancy is implemented, and how load-balancing works—along with a number of other key differences between each of the design options. One approach that is being used to address this growing need for more dynamic and flexible network access is the introduction of 802.11 wireless capabilities into the campus. Five minutes of outage experienced in the middle of a critical business event has a significant impact on the enterprise. Device resiliency, as with network resiliency, is achieved through a combination of the appropriate level of physical redundancy, device hardening, and supporting software features. They all started as simple highly optimized connections between a small number of PCs, printers, and servers. This topic discusses the enterprise campus module, enterprise edge module, and the service provider edge module. Each edge port can be configured to detect traffic within a specific port range and, for all traffic that is less than a defined normal rate, mark that traffic with the correct DSCP values. Most servers in the data center consist of single and dual attached one rack unit (RU) servers, blade servers with integrated switches, blade servers with pass-through cabling, clustered servers, and mainframes with a mix of oversubscription requirements. The convergence of the voice, video, and data networks (as an example) has enabled the development of Unified Communications systems that are allowing businesses to more efficiently leverage all the various inter-personal communication tools. Providing for a high availability in a campus design requires consideration of three aspects: •What SLA can the design support (how many nines)? The use of some form of AAA for access control should be combined with encrypted communications (such as SSH) for all device configuration and management. However, it is the flexibility that VLANs offer that has had the largest impact on campus designs. Enabling port security on the access switch allows it to restrict which frames are permitted inbound from the client on an access port based on the source MAC address in the frame. Simpler overall network configuration and operation, per flow upstream and downstream load balancing, and faster convergence are some of the differences between these newer design options and the traditional multi-tier approach. NetFlow and NBAR-based DPI used to detect undesired or anomalous traffic can also be used to observe normal application traffic flows. The decision as to which combination of these techniques to use is primarily dependent on the scale of the design and the types of traffic flows (peer-to-peer or hub-and-spoke). See Figure 32. While the use of a virtual switch to simplify the campus topology can help address many design challenges, the overall design must follow the hierarchical design principles. Three QoS design principles are important when deploying campus QoS policies: •Classify and mark applications as close to their sources as technically and administratively feasible. The distribution layer in the campus design has a unique role in that it acts as a services and control boundary between the access and the core. A virtual switch can be used in any location in the campus design where it is desirable to replace the current control plane and hardware redundancy with the simplified topology offered by the use of a virtual switch. See Figure 12. 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